How changes in societies are effected?
It is not the change that happens at the top that matters, but the changes that take place at the bottom, the foundations of a system, the agents of a system, the human individuals in societies.
Any change in the perspective, the outlook, the viewpoint, the behaviour, the rules of conduct of the human individual, or whatever other term is used to express what drives the acts performed or undertaken by agents in the system society, every activity that unfolds in all societies, the world over.
Changes that are effected on the ideas, no matter how little or big, human individuals carry. Big or little ideas that explain all acts individuals undertake, what is behind of everything that move societies back and forth at any given moment, but always forth when looked at from the perspective of longer time intervals.
Social systems, with a variety of institutions devised amidst them, tend to preserve what is gained, assumed to be the cornerstone, the pinnacle, the panacea of all societal structures tried and tested so far. Their actions are directed towards all the ideas held by human individuals. Their attempts aim at moulding the changes ideas can undergo. What changes are allowed and what are not. At the end, they become reactionary, subversive, they hold back the proliferation of ideas, stifle progress.
But the kind of changes, ideas undergo, can not be directed by the narrow boundaries institutions prescribe, especially when it is taken into account that these institutions are heavily influenced by factors alien to the nature of the human individual, and driven by the most primitive of principles, of the domination of groups of individuals by any other group of individuals for whatever reason or other arbitrary viewpoint possible.
Human history is a treasure, sort to speak, of a large cohort of examples where groups, based on race, colour, religion, nationality, birth, gender, birthplace, or whatever other attribute, trivial or not that divides humanity into groups.
All these divisions, one by one have been tried and tested, and eventually overthrown and abandoned and all started as changes in the ideas carried in the minds of individuals and subsequently as changes in the structure of societies built.
The last bastion, the domination by groups of individuals based on the possession of money is underway, and eventually to come into its liberating conclusion.
Once this is accomplished, then the most miraculous journey for humanity begins. The unhindered by alien, external influences, discovery of nature itself and the nature of the human individual.