Sunday, 28 April 2013

The default mode network (DMN) out of functions of a self-referential nature. Self-referential processes, the groundwork for chaos.

"At the conference, they reported new findings on how these drugs scramble brain activity in ways that might help explain their mind-bending effects."

mind-bending .. as spacetime ..bending .. curving spacetime ..

mind space .. as any other kind of space .. whatever its ..flavour ..  combined with ..time .. as spacetime .. something like ..mind spacetime .. you have another approach to provide an explanation to the aforesaid effects of the hallucinogenic drugs ..

Einsteins .. relativity in mind space ..

 Image: Taís Melillo/Flickr
cooollll...

"Araújo’s team found that ayahuasca reduces neural activity in something called the default mode network, an web of interconnected brain regions that fire up whenever people aren’t focused on any specific task. It’s active when people daydream or let their minds wander, for example."

.. default mode network  .. a web of interconnected brain regions that fire up whenever people aren’t focused on any specific task ..

.. reduces ..neural activity in the default mode network ..and as a result of this reduction .. the psychedelic effects(??) ..

"Scientists don’t really know what it does, but they love to speculate. One interpretation is that activity in this network may represent what we experience as our internal monologue and may help generate our sense of self."

network .. and as such ..it has been identified .. may represent .. internal monologue .. or ..in some sense ..a dialogue .. with an ..un-identified ..participant .. or even ..participants .. generate our sense of ..self .. out of the ..self(s) ..

..out of the whole is more than the sum of its parts .. approach ..  kind of dialogue-monologue .. hell .. why not ..loads-a conversations going on there ..

self ..as such ..its meaning .. how it is derived .. the self ..the product out of self-referential processes .. the self ..out of self-referential ..

.. the equation derived state .. after each bout of a self-referring process .. always changing to reflect the outcome of the current referring process ..

only to last for as long the next process in the self-referential loop ..takes to complete .. the unit of time .. there are no limits .. even to quantum scales .. as small it can be ..

cybernetics .. concept arriving processes .. procedures ..

Open Your Mind to the New Psychedelic Science | Wired Science | Wired.com

Neuroscience: Idle minds : Nature News & Comment

"Last year, British scientists reported that psilocybin, the active ingredient in magic mushrooms, like ayahuasca,  reduces activity in the brain’s default mode network."

.. reduces activity .. neural .. and ..in .. in the brain’s default mode network.. again .. discrete .. specific .. that holds the key .. in understanding the findings ..

"The researchers proposed that interfering with the default network could be how psychedelic drugs cause what users often describe as a disintegration of the self, or even a sense of oneness with the universe."

.. disintegration of self .. sense of oneness with the universe ..

(..what came to my mind now .. the approach .. the attitude ..ingrained ..in us .. to deny this dimension of human activity its comeuppance .. its use and usefulness ..out of an arbitrary measure based upon the worthiness imposed by religion, self-righteous societies .. hypocriting in the sense that what does not serve a purpose worthy of the standards, imposed shove it under the carpet .. it does not suit our ideas about the human being ..)

.. disintegration of self .. sense of oneness with the universe .. the reduction in neural activity in this
..default network .. brings about .. disintegration of self .. self aggregated ..out of its parts .. integrated .. into a whole .. that process is ..inhibited .. stalled .. the self remain in ..scattered .. into its pieces .. and in that state .. the sense of oneness with the universe  .. achieved .. claimed as been achieved ..

"The results suggest psilocybin affects not only the default mode network, but also disrupts a certain type of rhythmic brain activity."

..disrupts a certain type of rhythmic brain activity..

"Individual subjects who experienced more of this desychronization while on the drug tended to report a greater subjective sense of disintegration. ”For me this is the most interesting observation of the lot,” Carhart-Harris said. “Our sense of self, the sense of being someone, really is a kind of an illusion. All we are is a product of our brain activation.”"

desychronization..  synchronisation ..being the process that the disparate parts coalesce into the whole .. the self .. and as such is .. desynchronised .. therefore ..disintegration ..of self .. self as such ..self-dom .. the process (..or the outcome of..) that separates us .. detaches ..us from the oneness of the universe .. in a sense denies us .. the oneness ..and the hallucinogenic drugs ..disrupts that process .. assists in the disruption ..

the state(s) that ..it allows us to be .. illusions .. hallucinations .. deemed as ..

but ..

..our sense of self, the sense of being someone, really is a kind of an illusion. .. the reality ..turns out to be the ..illusion .. turns heads ..upside down ..

.. all we are is a product of our brain activation..

product ..mass produced .. outcome .. processes ..machinery .. brain .. activated ..on-line ..

attempting to make sense .. passing it through my filters ..

Psilocybin Study Hints at Rebirth of Hallucinogen Research | Wired Science | Wired.com

"Formerly the focus of academic and government inquiry, hallucinogens were abandoned by researchers in the aftermath of the Sixties, when rampant recreational abuse frightened authorities and the drugs became culturally intertwined with chemical excess. But with a small but growing number of researchers now studying hallucinogens, the once-promising field is alive again."

.. when rampant recreational abuse frightened authorities and the drugs became culturally intertwined with chemical excess ..

abuse .. frightened authorities .. culturally intertwined with chemical excess .. the mindless brute ..the human .. treated ..beneath .. combined with lack of information .. un-armed by knowledge .. the authorities the proverbial ..watchdog ..hound ..built out of perpetual distrust of people .. determined to adhere to standards put forth by their enlightened members ..know-all individuals .. themselves ..heaped in ignorance ..all that they represent simply a facade ..

and the people that are treated as dirt .. behave like dirt .. a self-fulfilling process ..

one that could be seen even in the current revival of the study of the hallucinogenic drugs .. the ..yesterday's ..dirt .. become the enlightened of today's .. the mix of people reported that attended the conference in 2010 .. which was not the usual cohort attending scientific conferences ..

"In 2008 Griffiths and his team at Johns Hopkins reported that the majority of 36 ordinary people who took psilocybin for the first time in an 8-hour session in his lab still regarded the experience as one of the five most personally meaningful events of their lives more than a year later. Two-thirds of them rated it among their top five spiritual experiences."

"More recently, Griffiths surveyed 1,600 recreational psilocybin and found that 40 percent ranked the experience in their top five most personally meaningful."

..personally meaningful.. meaning .. for selves .. actively engaging into .. the process to make sense out of events we are engaged in .. achieve meaning .. understanding why we have engaged\are engaging .. judging ..assessing the impact upon self ..

less .. 'I don't know's' .. as we progress through life .. and more ..'I know's' ..

and that meaning achieved .. carried on in life .. directs one's future engagements .. profoundly ..

"The classic psychedelics, including psilocybin and LSD, stimulate receptors for serotonin, a neurotransmitter that’s also targeted, albeit in different ways, by approved antidepressant and anti-anxiety drugs like Prozac and Zoloft."

Psilocybin. Image: Jynto/Wikimedia Commons

The default mode network and self-referential processes in depression

"The recently discovered default mode network (DMN) is a group of areas in the human brain characterized, collectively, by functions of a self-referential nature. In normal individuals, activity in the DMN is reduced during nonself-referential goal-directed tasks, in keeping with the folk-psychological notion of losing one's self in one's work."

.. functions of a self-referential nature .. self-referential processes .. the groundwork for chaos .. deterministic chaos .. as all chaos related processes are.. even just for lack of evidence ..against .. merely the absence of knowledge ..at the current state that knowledge is ..

avoiding ..dipping into chaos .. feared .. scared of .. and that is ..that what ..DMN .. represents .. the default mode network .. the group of areas in the human brain .. scientifically specified ..

..and by being ..default .. or merely ..claimed as such .. as we will always end up there .. only if we take our mind of .. engage in ..non-self-referential tasks .. towards achieving goals .. set out as ..meaningful(?) .. making money(?) .. loose one's self in one's work .. deemed as ..

what have been called as well ..as existential problems .. doubting our own existence .. meaningless .. and the anxiety it brings out .. the depressive moods .. lingering into states of loosing one's own mind .. the oneness equated to ..nothingness .. an onslaught of despair ..and oblivion ..

the disintegration of self ..healing ..provides experiences ..otherworldly ..presumably ..

avails an informed approach .. self-learning ..self-engaging ..active-ly.. knowing why

work .. as a means of defense for the individual .. work presents itself as a necessity ..

people in society delving into stupor .. the fear authorities are engulfed in ..see it as a threat .. but for people is .. see it as a soul-searching endeavour ..mystical experiences .. mystical in need to be ..demystified

"Imaging and anatomical studies in major depression have found alterations in both the structure and function in some regions that belong to the DMN, thus, suggesting a basis for the disordered self-referential thought of depression."

.. the disordered self-referential thought of depression ..

.. they ask the wrong question .. there is a fault in the question .. and it would only produce false results ..

the self-referential term adheres to the DMN .. the DMN by their definition is self-deferential and as such makes it chaotic ..and is disordered by nature .. and it does exist in all human individuals .. but do not all humans suffer from depression .. depression arising out of the circumstances each individual finds self in ..

..should be accepted ..that this is our nature .. as it has been since we set foot upon this planet ..or better since our consciousness ..kicked in .. and elevated us to the current status we are in today ..

and this nature of ourselves ..has driven us to constantly make meaningful our life events .. first at a personal level and by that to the next stage to the collective level ..and that is how knowledge have amassed ..

and that is every individual's potential

depression kicks in when the individual does not fulfill the potential carried .. when society treats the individual like a cog in a machine .. alienate the individual from its very self .. do not allow individual to delve deeper into self .. to gain knowledge for self .. to achieve meaning for self ..

..something that can be achieved ..if armed with knowledge ..

Saturday, 2 February 2013

each individual an asset to one's community .. such 'assets' to transform into the currency .. for people to exchange products and services they are ..responsible for

each individual an asset to one's community .. such 'assets' to transform into the currency .. for people to exchange products and services they are ..responsible for

give a man a fish and he will sustain self for a day teach a man how to fish and he will sustain self for a lifetime ..

the perspective upon which communities are built .. the skills and the knowledge of the members of a community that which growth and development of the community relies upon ..

the vehicle for progress relies solely on the abilities and the expertise that the members of the community possess ..

if ever for such a system to progress .. should base upon it ..the whole system of economy for a community, a village, a town, a city, a country, a state right up to ..the whole world over and in every aspect of it .. to literally form the 'currency' used to exchange the goods produced and the services offered

every bit of the process built upon the very entity it relies upon .. the people .. kept inside within the system on the entities of the system that is built upon..

Monday, 23 April 2012

leaders .. each and everyone of us. It is merely a matter of scope that differentiates each leader out of us from another.

..leaders each and everyone of us..
..how can one .. wiggle its way out of.. of what? .. this paradox ..

Welcome to Procentus Consulting

"The new ‘now’ is with us as a core feature of the foreseeable future."


defining .. the new ‘now’ .. with my apologies .. to what avail these are ..deemed as necessary or appropriate ..

if that term is ..appropriate .. in the current situation .. and what I try to achieve


The challenges are immense.


a revelation .. what I can call it .. and push forth a humble ..apology ..
to a fellow man ..pursuing ..its very own line ---


leaders .. each and everyone of us .. humanity as a whole ..leadered ..

..it is merely a matter of scope that differentiates each leader out of us from another.

from us ..being leaders in our lives .. to being leaders for the immediate circle that surround us .. to ..ever widening circles .. possible and potential ..

limitless .. boundless ..for .. each and every one .. separately .. and for humanity at large ..

.. concentric circles .. all-inclusive .. and .. thoroughly included in all ..

the only definition ..fit to the human individual .. none other .. than that .. that includes the leadership attribute ..

the fact remains .. the leadership qualities .. are for us all .. no one is excluded ..

something that ought to accompany all the ..leadership wares .. one(s) are ..peddling ..

for any leader .. that extends its scope .. of leading .. beyond its very own life .. its immediate circle ..

- it is paramount .. to sink into us .. in the psyche .. of what is represented .. as a human individual .. as ..humanity -

that this individual ..seeks ..to be a leader .. of leaders ..

that is the challenge .. for each one of us .. that extends its reach to such scope ..

for leading .. beyond its very own life ..

that we are .. leaders .. each and every one of us ..not sheep ..

what ..ought not .. to be ignored .. scorned at .. ridiculed ..

the challenges the world faced in its long history .. and faces .. it is none other than .. the realization .. sinking hard on ..consciousnesses

as individuals .. constantly .. and continuously .. persistant .. and unstoppable .. for the heck of it ..

strive to assume their .. rights .. inalienable as they are .. to lead their lives ..against the odds .. that societies evolution ..has left upon humanity's shoulders .. the baggage to bear .. as bit by bit .. that aforesaid baggage ..is shaken off .. and discarded .. dust in the wake of humanity's progress ..


forsaken .. would be .. when would-be leaders .. choose to ignore .. that the ones they want to lead .. are leaders .. as well ..

only to be reminded of .. as they have been .. and .. would be.. usually the hard way .. an inescapable consequence ..

a hint for the remaining .. usurpers of human will .. wherever they are ..a gentle reminder .. that ought to be heeded .. if not to be left to escalate .. to a stark reminder ..

Saturday, 3 March 2012

The unconscious in society.

Monetary policy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


"Expansionary policy is traditionally used to try to combat unemployment in a recession by lowering interest rates in the hope that easy credit will entice businesses into expanding. Contractionary policy is intended to slow inflation in hopes of avoiding the resulting distortions and deterioration of asset values."

.. in the hope that easy credit will entice businesses into expanding ..

.. contractionary policy is intended to slow inflation in hopes of avoiding the resulting distortions and deterioration of asset values ..

.. in hope .. we trust .. a direct ..what? .. approximation? .. of .. Hayek's quote .. "...because any individual knows only a small fraction of all which is known collectively."

The Use of Knowledge in Society - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"In Hayek's words, "The marvel is that in a case like that of a scarcity of one raw material, without an order being issued, without more than perhaps a handful of people knowing the cause, tens of thousands of people whose identity could not be ascertained by months of investigation, are made to use the material or its products more sparingly; that is, they move in the right direction."

.. what the fuck .. is that..

.. without an order being issued .. the order.. lack or not .. representing .. the price signal ..

fuck off .. the use of knowledge in society .. the unconscious ..in society ..

my mind .. has performed .. an association .. it was not planned .. or driven .. as .. the threads that connect them .. associate them .. barely stand .. no matter .. the association has been performed .. and it is there .. for my mind to put ..substance in it .. meaning .. to draw .. more threads ..in it and by ..thickening .. the population of threads .. to glean out the procedure .. involved

the unconscious in society ..contemplated .. for different reasons .. to explain what drives government ..or state administration personnel .. at various states around the world .. against the system that they are an integral part of .. undermining the very system .. that they are part of .. finally undermining their very own position ..

the unconscious .. in the brain .. in the mind the brain makes .. the ..(well let us say it as such) .. contribution to the unconscious .. that brain neurons ..make .. either .. on their own .. single neurons .. or in groups .. assemblies of neurons .. and from that taken it to the level of societies .. having instead of neurons .. individuals .. on their own .. single individuals .. or in groups .. comittees or other bodies ..

though ..right now .. as I think of it .. with regards of societies .. and what triggered .. the unconscious in society ..idea .. involves individuals and groups of individuals .. which are the officials in state and government .. the upper levels in the hierarchy of society ..

that implies .. the individual precedent that overwhelms .. and overrides any demands that belonging in group ..entails ..

without meaning that the same attributes of .. the unconscious in society ..is not evident in other levels in the hierarchy of the society .. and that it is less important .. nevertheless .. whatever the level .. individuals act in the same way .. that neurons act ..

individuals .. either singly or in groups .. represent .. the unconscious in the society ..

despite that .. my thoughts still ..require closure .. the connection in Hayek's words .. between .. the scarcity of a resource .. and ..its sparing use .. by people .. without the information .. being relayed between the two points .. explicitly .. which .. amounts to ..being relayed .. unconsciously

.. or .. better put it .. being relayed ..via .. deeper levels .. that evades .. participants ..awareness

what can ..one think about it .. the idea of the ..invisible hand .. attributed to this Hayek's ..line of thoughts .. comes forth .. but does not explain ..

one thing that brings relevance to it .. is Goertzel's idea .. what came out of it .. the different levels .. that the visual system .. is built out of .. and whatever scene or object is visualised .. is processed ..from bottom to top .. analysed .. in its entirety .. from what it is comprised of .. from lines and circles .. to more complex planes .. level-by-level ..

the idea behind it .. that all these .. are performed .. without the individual bearing the brain .. being aware .. unconsciously .. what the individual is aware of .. is the final outcome of all these .. complicated processes .. that took place .. had to take place .. for the object or scene .. to be seen ..

but referring to that ..as unconscious .. either for the brain/mind and .. society .. doesn't explain .. how does that happen ..

one .. line of thought .. is what has been .. well, say it .. discovered .. about the 4.74 degrees of separation .. between the whole earth population .. the unseen contacts that implies .. channels that computations ..run across

the equivalent ..of the synapses in neurons .. highly ..interconnected ..

the knowledge ..is holistic .. may ..each one holds .. just a little bit ..of it .. but as a whole .. we possess ..all

that ought to give a perspective .. for the whole amount of ideas .. existing for the entire population on earth .. embodies the 'body of knowledge' .. that ideas do not travel .. at least not ..only .. by the ..physical .. traditional .. media .. but .. through the highly interconnected .. people network .. all over the world .. the one that is .. 4.74 degrees .. apart

Thursday, 16 February 2012

The bottomless pit. The microscales of the human structures dissipating the energy stored in money. The paradox of economy.

BBC News - Greece bailout: Eurozone calls for tighter oversight http://bbc.in/vZeTnT via @addthis


"Earlier, Mr Schaeuble said: "We can help, but we are not going to pour money into a bottomless pit."

agreed ..

but ..is time for Mr Schaeuble .. to get his maths right .. his physics .. into a proper perspective ..

the epitomisation .. of the bottomless pit .. the microscales .. fractally revealed .. microscales .. where energy is dissipated ..

money .. represent ..spending power .. the energy the individual is afforded .. once they are ..in its possession ..

pour money .. into bottomless pit .. into the microscales .. of the human structures .. energy siphoned .. down to the ..microscales .. and the microscales .. are vast .. endless .. can never be satisfied .. no matter how vast .. the energy-carrying potential money accumulates ..

money .. a store of energy .. money as such .. do not go down ..any bottomless pit .. the energy stored in them .. it is what goes down .. the bottomless pit .. the microscales ..of society ..

energy ..dissipated .. witnessed as ..spending .. curb spending .. to stop the flow of money .. but their flow .. can not be curbed .. as they continue to store the energy .. even when this energy .. has been spent .. and can be spent .. again and again .. as long as money is possessed by individuals ..

.. curb spending .. stop pouring money into a bottomless pit .. but that does never happen .. money continue to float .. never out of circulation ..

.. money do not disappear .. once they are spent .. that is the paradox .. Mr Schaeuble .. has to deal with ..

and if money .. do not disappear when they are spent .. where do the go .. an answer that everyone .. has ..handy ..

into the hands ..of the final recipient .. into the vaults of the banks .. or whoever .. whatever entity .. makes it the goal .. of its existence ..

.. what remains .. is the ..joy .. that money affords to people .. the energy ..spending .. encapsulated in money ..

what keeps the whole spiral ..going .. advances humanity ..

it is ..stingy to deprive people .. of such .. enjoyment ..

Tuesday, 27 December 2011

Replacement to utter dumbfounding degree, effortlessly as if seemingly out of nowhere. Practices that are not what is agreed on, vanish into thin air.

.. becoming evident ..to all .. new pieces keep popping up ..

.. replacement .. to utter dumbfounding degree .. effortlessly .. as if .. seemingly out of nowhere .. practices that are not ..what is agreed upon .. vanish into thin air ..

.. changes upheld .. at the most fundamental level .. people ..

.. the past to current practices followed .. keep disappearing .. automatically ..extinguish .. what was the norm ..up to now .. will be .. no more ..

.. what is underlying the crisis .. the world over .. the global economic crisis ..

.. people keep asserting .. strengthening the attractors .. what is agreed upon .. and continue inventing new ways .. to deal with each other .. new attractors to trod on .. their innovation potential .. immense ..

Friday, 25 November 2011

the priorities ..of living for individual .. and societies .. and of companies

Chaotic Logic .. p. 34 .. the brain .. massively parallel ..

"One way to predict the future of a system, given certain assumptions about its present and about the laws governing its behavior, is to simply simulate the system. But this is inefficient, for a very simple physicalistic reason. Unlike most contemporary digital computers, the brain works in parallel -- there are a hundred billion neurons working at once, plus an unknown multitude of chemical reactions interacting with and underlying this neural behavior. And each neuron is a fairly complicated biochemical system, a far cry from the on-off switch in a digital computer. But when one simulates a system, one goes one step at a time . To a certain extent, this wastes the massive parallelism of the brain."

.. waste ..indeed ..


redundancy .. in processes .. .. what it is asked to achieve .. the task in mind .. a barrage of processes .. targeted .. targeted? .. not exactly .. they are not directed to a specific target .. they are unleashed .. to any exposed receptors .. for whatever outcome .. they might elicit .. beneficial or harmful ..

they are not silver bullets ..

brain .. brain waves .. unleashed .. sweep around .. to make .. mind

parallel .. vs. serial .. what is the difference .. the subtle ..difference ..


p.35 .. trends in practical computing .. the development of parallel-processing computers .. when these .. expected .. to outperform .. conventional serial computers .. and by what margin ..

"So, the question is, is simulation the best a mind can do, or are there short-cuts? This question ties in with some pressing problems of modern mathematics and theoretical computer science. One of the biggest trends in modern practical computer science is the development of parallel processing computers, and it is of great interest to know when these computers can outperform conventional serial computers, and by what margin."

parallel computing .. equated to quantum computing .. parallel .. superposition

individuals .. sold short .. mind-boggling .. thoroughly wasteful .. numbing senses .. for the individual .. and for society at large .. lacking meta-knowledge .. the attribute that reveals .. the potential hidden within an individual .. paramount .. a vitally necessary practice .. to be incorporated in the corpus of the processes each individual undertakes to solve any problems ..

meta-knowledge .. knowing .. attempting to gain knowledge .. of how knowledge is gained .. how .. we are good at what we do good .. and how we are bad at what we do bad.. the mechanisms underlying .. responsible .. lurking underneath .. at what we all do .. builds out from .. fathom the mechanisms .. delve deep into them .. become extremely familiar with them ..

sustenance .. survival .. personal .. of those around us .. should be surpassed .. become the least .. of our worries .. concerns about them .. ought to be eliminated ..

survival .. sustenance ought to be the last things in their brains to deal with .. the ultimate goal for all that a human mind is able to provide .. to be put to good use .. the concerted efforts .. the collective grapple

to make that possible ..

individual .. and society .. ought to realise .. the waste .. that adherence to the prerogative that money puts forth .. its levelling off .. of all human individuals qualities are capable off .. is a destroyer and will lead to the ultimate demise .. of societies ..of human individuals .. of humanity ..proper

the money have been .. in its time .. what propelled in the forefront .. human ingenuity .. tenacity .. in itself ..a destroyer .. of old antiquated social structures .. created an upheaval ..

the new structures built .. have themselves grown stale .. old and antiquated .. outdated .. and ought to be replaced .. this process has already started .. it's ongoing .. nothing can stop it .. the old structures .. and whoever is clinging on them .. ought to realise .. resistance is futile .. can not go against the tide .. Assands .. Salehs .. Merkels .. Sarkozys .. Goldman Sachs .. bankers .. and all others from your very own battered fortresses .. give in .. instead .. be constructive .. contribute

money .. has surpassed .. outlived ..its usefulness ..

societies .. allocate .. goods and services and not make a big deal about it .. simple processes put in place .. focus on the goal .. do not sway .. divert .. get distracted .. by any other considerations .. monetary values, alien to human nature .. an obstacle .. to what is required to be achieved .. to render free the brains of individuals .. to create networks that will propel humanity to its utmost ..


the priorities ..of living for individual .. and societies .. and of companies

is it a matter .. that their brains ..rendered useless .. lobotomised .. to fulfil .. a premise .. the premise .. the orderly running of societies ..

the individual a gorging machine .. out to consume .. .. everything ..that crosses its path .. an all-out quest .. to swallow relentlessly .. a voracious appetite .. always hungry .. and always thirsty ..

-------------

processes .. act independently .. entities on their own .. a system by itself ..

.. elicit responses .. their reach .. universal .. spread .. their target, obliging receptors .. whatever or ..whoever receives them .. and responds to .. them .. responses .. range from harmful to beneficial ..

.. redundancy .. generated .. copiously .. in waves .. wave-like .. .. the instructions are unleashed .. in waves .. brain-waves .. as well as, ideas, notions, concepts .. all that the human brain .. concocts out of its constant battle with life ..

the originator .. the source ..

societies .. the principles .. the ideals .. adhered by ..